Alain Fohr

Alain Fohr

Advisor to the French Embassy in Spain

Alain Fohr joined the French Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs in 1976. He first held positions at various universities in Ghana, Iraq and Morocco before being appointed Cooperation Attaché in Greece. After a first return to the French Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs in Paris, he was nominated Cultural Councillor in Mexico and Director of the French Institute of Latin America. He was then appointed Cultural Councillor in Buenos Aires (2003-2004) and Director of the French Institute of Athens (2004 -2008). From that date, he returned to the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs as Head of Cultural and Artistic Cooperation, in the Cultural Diversity and World Heritage Department.His last position was as Cultural Councillor and Director of the French Institute in Madrid and of the French Institute of Spain, from 2010 to 2015.

Alban Corbier-Labasse

Alban Corbier-Labasse

Creative Programme Coordinator (Africa and Caribbean), Institut Français

Alban Corbier-Labasse has spent all his career in the cultural sector, alternating positions in French local authorities, in the French external cultural network and as head of cultural institutions in France and French overseas territories.His training and experience is in Performing Arts. He directed two festivals, Mediarte (digital art), which he created and programmed in Mexico and Tempo, in Reunion, a multidisciplinary festival focused on circus and street arts.He was Director of the Institut Français Dakar, Senegal (2010-2013) and of the Institut Français Casablanca, Morocco (2013-2017).

Alexander Graf Lambsdorff

Alexander Graf Lambsdorff

Former Member of the European Parliament

Alexander Graf Lambsdorff is a German politician and Member of Bundestag since 2017. Previously, he was Member of the European Parliament with the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe. He sat on the European Parliament’s Committee on Foreign Affairs and was a member of the Delegation for relations with the People’s Republic of China. He was also a substitute for the Committee on Culture and Education and for the Delegations to the EU-Turkey Joint Parliamentary Committee and to the ACP-EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly.

Alexander Rinnooy Kan

Alexander Rinnooy Kan

Member of the Dutch Senate

Alexander Rinnooy Kan is a Member of the Senate since June 2015 and a Professor of Economics and Business Studies at the University of Amsterdam since September 2012.Mr. Rinnooy Kan started as a professor in operational research in 1980, at the Erasmus University in Rotterdam. He was then Director of the Econometric Institute in 1983 and Rector Magnificus in 1986. In the meantime, he was also visiting professor at Berkeley, California and the MIT, Boston among others.In 1991 he became Chairman of the Confederation of Dutch Industry VNO. Mr. Rinnooy Kan joined the Executive Board of ING and became Chairman of the Board of both ING Insurance Central Europe and ING Insurance & Asset Management Asia/Pacific. He held these positions until June 2006. From 2006 to 2012 he was President of the Social-Economic Council (SER).

Ana Paula Laborinho

Ana Paula Laborinho

Director of the Portuguese representation of the Organization of Ibero-American States for Education, Science and Culture (OEI)

She has specialised in travel writings, especially Asian routes. She has lectured at graduate and post-graduate levels in the fields of Portuguese Literature, Hispanic-American Literature and Asian Studies. She coordinates a research line on Orientalism at the Centre of Comparative Studies of the University of Lisbon. During her 14 years in Macau, she assumed the post of Director of the Cultural Institute of Macau, and she was a teacher at the University of Macau, where she helped to establish the Institute of Portuguese Studies. During the period from 1996 to 2002, she was President of the Portuguese Institute of the Orient, institution responsible for promoting and divulgating the Portuguese language and culture in Eastern Asia. She is currently the President of the Camões Institute and held the Presidency of EUNIC Global from July 2011 to June 2012.

André de Margerie

André de Margerie

Director of International Relations, Arte France & Arte Global

André de Margerie started at the Ministry of the Environment (1977-1982). In 1982 he was appointed Official Representative of the Presidency of Radio France, in 1987 Head of Sponsorship for Havas (1987-91) and member of the team of the Bicentennial of the French Revolution (1988-89). He has been working at ARTE France since 1991, where he has been successively Official Representative of the Presidency, Cultural Development Officer, Deputy Director and Director of International Relations. Since February 2011, he has also been responsible for the International Relations of ARTE Global.

Andrew Senior

Andrew Senior

Expert in Creative Economy - Director, Andrew Senior Associates Ltd.

Andrew Senior established the Creative Industries Unit (CIU) at the British Council in 1999. Working with a small team, he began to build the Unit’s profile within the British Council (as part of Arts Group) and within the context of the Department for Culture, Media & Sports Creative Industries Export Promotion Advisory Group (CIEPAG). Over the next decade, working closely with colleagues in the art form departments and internationally, Andrew drove the strategic development of the creative economy agenda within the British Council. In 2008 it became one of the three principal platforms of the British Council activity.
Andrew left the British Council in 2010 to set up Andrew Senior Associates Ltd (ASA).

Charles Esche

Charles Esche

Director, Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven

Charles Esche is a curator and writer. Since 2004 he is Director of the Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven. He is an advisor at the Rijksakademie, Amsterdam and Board Member of the Emanuel Hoffmann Foundation, Basel and MUSEON, Bolzano. Under his directorship, the Van Abbemuseum has created a European network – L’Internationale, which aims to establish a European modern and contemporary art institution by 2017. His writings on institutional possibility and policy are useful aids to rethinking the relation between art and social change. In 2012 Charles Esche won the European Cultural Foundation’s Princess Margriet Award for cultural change-makers who enhance the unique role of the arts in Europe, in recognition for his extraordinary curatorial oeuvre in which he has opened up the museum as a public space of active engagement reaching out to both local and international communities.

Corina Şuteu

Corina Şuteu

Former Culture Minister of Romania

From May 2016 to January 2017, Corina Şuteu was the Culture Minister of Romania. Prior to this, she was President of FilmETC (New York-Bucharest), Making Waves Film Festival NY and Director of the Romanian Cultural Institute in New York. She previously acted as President of the European Forum of Cultural Networks and was a board member of IETM and ENCATC.

Ms. Şuteu is also a founder of the ECUMEST Association. She has worked internationally extensively, as a diplomat, trainer, independent consultant and researcher in the fields of cultural cooperation and cultural management and comparative cultural policies in Europe.

Damien Helly

Damien Helly

Visiting Professor, College of Europe

Damien Helly is culture advisor and visiting professor for the College of Europe. He has been a specialist on the cultural dimensions of the external action of the European Union since 2006, which saw his first collaboration with Palmer/Rae Associates. For 20 years he led research teams in various think tanks on European external action: ECDPM, European Institute for Security Studies (EUISS), African Observatory, International Crisis Group, Saferworld.His research activities focuses on EU foreign and security policy strategies, conflict prevention, crisis management practices, the links between security, development and governance, international cultural relations and external cultural action. Damien Helly holds a PhD in political science from Sciences Po, Paris.

David Fajolles

David Fajolles

Founder of Manufacturing Curiosity, Lecturer

David Fajolles worked at the French Ministry of Culture and Communication as the head of the Research and Prospective department. He started his career being in charge of the “Bureau du livre” in Brazil as a member of the French cultural network abroad and directed the “French Cultural Center” in Cape Verde. At the UNESCO, he was first an advisor to the prospective department and then a member of the cabinet of the Deputy Director for social sciences and humanities. He first started to work on European studies as the speechwriter for the former French Minister of European Affairs, Noelle Lenoir. Since then, he has worked for several French think tanks (Fondation pour l’innovation politique, Cercle des Européens) and as a fellow researcher at the European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS).

Delphine Borione

Delphine Borione

Ambassador, Permanent Representative of France to FAO, WFP and IFAD

Delphine Borione is a French diplomat who has held numerous bilateral and multilateral positions in the areas of sustainable development, economic, cultural and educational cooperation. In 2017, she was appointed Ambassador, Permanent Representative of France to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Food Programme (WFP) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) in 2017.Prior to this, she was the Deputy Secretary General for Social and Civil Affairs of the Union of the Mediterranean. She also was the Director of Cultural and Language Policies at the French Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs, and President of EUNIC Gobal.

Diederik Paalman

Diederik Paalman

DG Home, Deputy Head, Unit Visa, European Commission

Diederik Paalman joined the European Commission in 1996. After posts in the Directorates General for Trade and External Relations respectively, M. Paalman moved to the Directorate General for Justice and Home Affairs. In this DG he worked on relations with the United States post 9/11 and as a negotiator of EU readmission agreements. In 2011 he was appointed Deputy Head of Unit of Visa Policy in DG Home Affairs. In this capacity he is, inter alia, in charge of negotiations of visa facilitation agreements with partner countries.

Dr Pavol Demeš

Dr Pavol Demeš

Transatlantic Fellow German Marshall Fund Bratislava European Cultural Foundation Advisory Board

Pavol Demeš is an internationally recognized NGO leader based in Bratislava, Slovakia. He is the director for Central and Eastern Europe of the German Marshall Fund of the United States based in Bratislava, Slovakia, a position he has held since 2002. After graduating from Charles University in Prague he worked as a bio-medical researcher at Comenius University in Bratislava. Previously he served as the Executive Director of the Service Center for the Third Sector (SAIA). He was the Foreign Policy Advisor to the President of the Slovak Republic between 1993 and 1997, and the Slovak Minister of Foreign Affairs between 1991 and 1992.

Elisabeth O. Sjaastad

Elisabeth O. Sjaastad

Former CEO, Federation of European Film Directors

Elisabeth O. Sjaastad is the former Chief Executive of FERA, the Federation of European Film Directors. She studied directing at the Beijing Film Academy and the Central Academy of Drama (1998-2000). In 2002 she directed and produced the Amanda-nominated (Norway’s national film award) feature documentary Shiny Stars, Rusty Red (China) which was invited to film festivals worldwide. Through her production companies Screen Stories and Directors at Work AS she has also produced films from South Africa (also as director), Peru and the United Arab Emirates. In 2006 Elisabeth was appointed by the Norwegian Ministry of Culture as member of the Einarsson-committee, which produced a report on Norway’s audiovisual policy and made recommendations to restructure the Norwegian Film Institute and redefining the goals and ambitions of Norwegian film.

Fabienne Bidou

Fabienne Bidou

Deputy Director at Institut Français du Congo

Fabienne Bidou is Deputy Director of the Institut Français du Congo – Pointe-Noire. Prior to this, she was Director of Zone Franche, the biggest network dedicated to world music.

Mrs Bidou also directed the theater of the city of Bergerac and worked at Eurocréation, the European agency for young creators. After studying languages she lived several years in Germany where she taught French at the evening school for adults. She graduated in sociology.

Ferdinand Richard

Ferdinand Richard

President, Roberto Cimetta Fund

Ferdinand Richard has been the current President of the Roberto Cimetta Fund since 2009. He is also the former director of A.M.I, the National Centre for the Development of Contemporary Musics, that offers various training workshops, artist residences, and serves as an incubator for cultural micro-business.

In 1992 he founded the Friche-Belle-de-Mai (Marseille, France), a former industrial site that hosts today about 70 different cultural structures, and is now a board member. In 2005 he joined the Roberto Cimetta Fund supporting mobility for artists and cultural operators in the Euro-Arab dimension. From 1996 to 1999 he was President of the “European Forum for the Arts and Heritage” (now Culture Action Europe). He participated to the Anna Lindh Foundation French network as a steering committee member (2006-2008) and was President of “Medina”, the first Mediterranean music market held in Marseilles, now called “Bab-el-Med” (1998-1999).

Franz Fischler

Franz Fischler

President of the European Forum Alpbach

Franz Fischler, Austria´s former Commissioner for Agriculture, Rural Development and Fisheries of the European Union, is the President of the Eco Social Forum Europe (Food and Agriculture Organisation, FAO) since December 2004. He also runs his own consultancy business and is a lecturer in great demand. He started his career in 1979 in the extension service and served as Austrian Federal Minister for Agriculture and Forestry from 1989-1994. In his role as Minister, Franz Fischler led the negotiations on agriculture issues for Austria´s accession to the European Union. For nearly a decade (1995 to 2004) M. Fischler then successfully shaped European Agricultural Policy as the Commissioner for Agriculture, Rural Development and Fisheries of the EU.

Native of Tyrol, Austria, Franz Fischler holds a PhD from the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna.

Frédéric Martel

Frédéric Martel

Researcher, Journalist & Writer

Frédéric C. Martel is a researcher, journalist and writer. As a journalist, he works as the anchor of one of the main French radio shows on nationally syndicated public radio, a weekly program on media and creative industries (“Soft Power, the global magazine on cultural industries and the media”, on France Culture). M. Martel is also Foreign Affairs Columnist for the American newspaper Slate.

As a writer, he is the author of height books, including a book on theater in America, Theater (La Découverte, 2006) and a large study on culture and the arts in the US, De la Culture en Amérique (Gallimard, 2006). He is also the author of Mainstream, On the Global Cultural War (Flammarion, 2010), translated in a dozen of languages and which made international debates and discussions.

Gérald Grunberg

Cultural Consultant

Skilled and experienced in the field of libraries, archives and documentary heritage, Gérald Grunberg worked as a consultant on cultural development (Justapreslacrise).

From 2008 to 2013, Gérald Grunberg was the Representative for International Relations of the French National Public Library. Prior to this, he served as Director of the Public Information Library of the Centre Pompidou, and Regional Director of Cultural Affairs in Basse-Normandie. In addition, he was the Scientific and Technical Advisor to the Director of the Bibliotheca Alexandrina (Egypt) from 1997 to 2001.

Read the presentation he gave in Paris for the More Europe seminar.

Ghislaine Glasson Deschaumes

Ghislaine Glasson Deschaumes

Former Director, Transeuropéennes

Ghislaine Glasson Deschaumes is the former Director of the international journal of critical thinking Transeuropéennes, which she founded in 1993. She directed it until 2015. She is currently working at the University Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, as the head of project of the cluster of excellence Pasts in the Present.

She is an associate membre of the Institute for Social Sciences of Politics. She was responsible for the associate research team “Translating, between cultures” at the Collège international de philosophie (2006 to 2011).

Goran Tomka

Goran Tomka

Researcher in Cultural Policies, Faculty of Sports & Tourism, Novi Sad, Serbia

Goran Tomka is a graduate teaching assistant of cultural tourism related subjects at the Faculty of Sport and Tourism in Novi Sad, Serbia. He is also lecturer for the UNESCO Chair in cultural policy and management, at the University of Belgrade.

His research interests include participatory culture and art, new media, cultural tourism and cultural policy. He has published his papers in several leading national peer-reviewed journals and international publications and presented his work at academic conferences.

Gottfried Langenstein

Gottfried Langenstein

Vice-Chairman, Management Board of ARTE

Gottfried Langenstein is the Vice-chairman of the Management Board of the Franco-German channel ARTE, after being its President from January 2007 to December 2010, and Vice-President from 2003 to 2006. After coordinating the Science exhibition in Berlin in 1986-1987, M. Langenstein joined the International Affairs Directorate of the second public television channel ZDF. In 1989 he became Head of the International Relations department and then Director of International Affairs in 1994. Meanwhile, he chaired the Committee on ZDF festivals and was the Vice-chair of the Television European Broadcasting Union (EBU). In 2000 he became Programme Director of the ZDF European satellites (3sat, ZDFtheaterkanal, and ZDFinfokanal ZDFdokukanal).

Gottfried Wagner

Gottfried Wagner

Advisor to the Steering Committee

Gottfried Wagner works as advisor to More Europe, and in his main occupation as civil servant for the Austrian Federal Ministry for Education, Arts and Culture as special envoy for international cultural-political projects.

Gottfried Wagner is now freelance cultural consultant, advisor to public and civil cultural organisations. Prior to this, he has been an advisor to the Austrian Federal Ministry for Education and Women’s Affairs. For many years, he was Director of the European Cultural Foundation, Europe’s only independent, supranational and pan-European cultural foundation, and of KulturKontakt Austria, a European centre of excellence and resources for education, culture and the arts in Vienna.

Hugues Mingarelli

Hugues Mingarelli

EU Ambassador to Ukraine

Hugues Mingarelli is the Head of the EU Delegation to Ukraine since 2016. Prior to this, he served as Managing Director for North Africa, Middle East, the Arabian Peninsula, Iran and Iraq at the European External Action Service.

He joined the European Commission in 1982 as Administrator of the Audit of Structural Funds and European Development Fund. From 2000 to 2002 he worked as Director of the European Agency for Reconstruction (Management of EU Assistance to Kosovo, Serbia, Montenegro and Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia – FYROM). From 1990 he has worked at the DG for External Relations (RELEX) successively as Head of Unit for the New Independent States (1990-1999), Director for Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (2002-2007), Director for Middle East and South Mediterranean (2007-2007) and Deputy Director-General for Eastern Europe, Caucasus, Central Asia, North Africa, Middle East for the European Neighbourhood Policy (2007-2010).

Janne Teller

Janne Teller

Writer, Former UN & EU Official

Janne Teller is a Danish writer of several books, essays and short stories. For her youth novel Nothing (2000), she has been awarded with the Best Children’s Book Prize from the Danish Cultural Ministry. She received numerous other literary grants and awards, including the 2011 Michael L. Printz Honor Award and the Mildred Batchelder Honor Award in the USA. Her writing has a strong existential focus and circles around themes of doubt, faith, religion and history and is translated into 18 languages.

Before becoming a writer, she has worked as an advisor for the EU and in the UN, working with humanitarian and conflict resolution matters in places as diverse as Tanzania, Mozambique and Bangladesh. Janne Teller often participates in the public debate and her philosophical and controversial books have sparked heated debates in Denmark, and increasingly also elsewhere.

Katelijn Verstraete

Katelijn Verstraete

Regional Director East Asia Arts & Creative Industries, British Council

Katelijn Verstraete is Director of Arts & Creative Industries for East Asia at the British Council. She previously worked at the Asia-Europe Foundation (ASEF) from 2006 to 2012, developing multi-stakeholder programmes between Asia and Europe in the areas of cultural policy, artistic exchange, capacity-building and information exchange. Katelijn co-founded in 1999 BizArt, the first autonomous art space in Shanghai and developed between 2003-2006 the communication, training and Asia activities for the International Network for Contemporary Performing Arts (IETM) in Brussels, as well as managing the On The Move portal for artist mobility.

Katherine Watson

Katherine Watson

Former Director, European Cultural Foundation

Katherine Watson has over 30 years of international experience, on both sides of the Atlantic, combining interdisciplinary art productions with advocacy, research, policy and program development for non-profit arts organizations as well as governments. She has a particular interest in investigating how the digital shift has affected our society and in the intersection of art and culture with other fields of endeavour.

She is currently on the governing council of the European Foundation Centre (EFC).

Kenza Sefrioui

Kenza Sefrioui

Member & Co-Founder of Racines, Morocco

Kenza Sefrioui is a cultural journalist and book reviewer. From 2005 to 2010 she directed the literary column of the Journal hebdomadaire and collaborates to Babelmed, a website dedicated to Mediterranean cultures and societies, as well as Economia.

She studied comparative literature at the University Paris IV-Sorbonne and has published her PhD thesis: Souffles (1966.1973), espoirs de révolution culturelle au Maroc (Éditions du Sirocco, 2013). As a cultural activist, she advocates for the association Racines for the cultural development in Morocco and Africa, and organizes debates on cultural issues.

    Lars Seeberg

    Lars Seeberg

    Artistic Advisor, Former Sec Gen Aarhus Festival

    Director of see@rt, Lars Seeberg advises theatres, multicultural venues and funding initiatives of the European Commission and the Nordic Cultural Foundation. Lars Seeberg’s career started out in the field of drama both as a dramaturge at Odense Theater and as a professor at The Theatre School in Odense. For the last 20 years he has worked in the international arts and cultural scene – for example during his 10 years as Secretary General of the Aarhus International Festival (1991-2000). From 2000 to 2005, he initiated and designed the bicentenary of fairy tale author Hans Christian Andersen. Lars Seeberg’s voice is often heard in the Danish public debate where he for example has advocated for a more united, cosmopolitan and passionate European vision for culture, which should be based diversity, but also on a will to get involved, cooperate and inspire each other.

    Laurent Burin des Roziers

    Laurent Burin des Roziers

    Director, Institut Français Naples

    Laurent Burin des Roziers joined the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 1990 as Technical Adviser to the Cabinets of Thierry de Beaucé, and then Georges Kiejman. As an expert on the international audiovisual sector, he was appointed to the “Centre d’analyse et de prévision”, and then to the External Audiovisual Department, before being appointed Deputy Cultural Councillor to the United States in 1998.

    He returned to Paris in 2002 in the General Direction of International Cooperation and Development, as Deputy Director of Cultural and Artistic Cooperation. In 2007, he was appointed Curator of the “European Cultural Season” organised by CulturesFrance. He then participated in the preparation of the establishment of the French Institute. He was then Director of the French Institute of the United Kingdom, and is now the Director of the French Institute of Naples.

    Leila Shahid

    Leila Shahid

    Former Ambassador of Palestine to the EU, Belgium and Luxembourg

    From 2005 to 2015, Leila Shahid was Ambassador of Palestine to the European Union, Belgium and Luxembourg. She previously served as General Delegate of Palestine in France between 1993-2005, UNESCO 1993-1996, the Netherlands 1990-1993, Ireland 1989-1990.

    Born in exile in Lebanon of Palestinian parents, Leila Shahid studied Anthropology at the American University in Beirut and the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales in Paris.

    Leila Shahid believes in the importance of culture and art in her political and diplomatic work. She initiated the two important cultural events on contemporary Palestinian art and culture in France in 1997, Le Printemps Palestinien, in collaboration with the Quai d’Orsay and l’Institut du Monde Arabe ; and in Belgium in 2008, Masarat, with the Communaute Francaise de Belgique and les Halles de Schaerbek.

      Luc Lévy

      Luc Lévy

      Head of International Relations, Shoah Memorial, Paris

      Luc Lévy joined the French Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs in 1991 and was successively Cultural Advisor in Belgrade (1991-1998), Director of the French Institute in Moscow (1998-2001), adviser at the Ministry for the Balkans and Russia, Cultural Advisor in Riga (2003-2007). From 2008 to 2011, I was Chargé de Mission at the Policy Planning Staff.

      His expertise on Central Europe, the Balkans and Russia led him to organise meetings and seminars at the Ministry, and to edit publications promoting specific issues around the memorial and reconciliation process. Since 2011, Luc Lévy has been on secondment from the Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs to the Shoah Memorial, where he is Head of International Relations.

      Mais Irqsusi

      Mais Irqsusi

      Founder and Executive Director at Community Organizing Europe AB

      Mais Irqsusi has several years experience in project management – projects ranging from economic and political reform, to entrepreneurship, youth and culture.

      She was assigned to lead the program of the Arab Education Forum late 2008, during which she contributed significantly to the development of programs in all aspects in addition to the development of internal mechanisms of programs management and effectiveness of teamwork amongst staff and volunteers. She also worked in particular on the management and development of Safar Youth mobility program and Istikshaf program. Mais is currently the Director of Community Organizing Europe, an organisation that she founded and that provides training and coaching for individuals who want to campaign for change

      Malte Bergmann

      Malte Bergmann

      Sociologist & Urbanist

      Malte Bergmann is a sociologist specialised in the creative industries and urban research. He studied sociology at the Freie Universität Berlin. His main research interest is to understanding community formations in todays complex and divers urbanity and to co-develop possible bottom up development trajectories. From 2013 to 2018 he was the coordinator of the German Society for Design Theory and Research (DGTF). He also works as a freelance trend analyst and social entrepreneur.

        Marietje Schaake

        Marietje Schaake

        Member of the European Parliament

        Marietje Schaake is a Member of the European Parliament for the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) group. She serves on the Committee on Foreign Affairs, where she focuses on neighbourhood policy, Turkey in particular; human rights, with a specific focus on freedom of expression, internet freedom, press freedom; and Iran. In the Committee on Culture, Media, Education, Youth and Sports she works on Europe’s Digital Agenda and the role of culture and new media in the EU’s external actions. In the Committee on International Trade she focuses on intellectual property rights, the free flow of information and the relation between trade and foreign affairs.

        Before joining the Europea Parliament, she worked as an independent advisor to governments, diplomats, businesses and NGO’s, on issues of transatlantic relations, diversity and pluralism, civil and human rights.